View the Google Map which has plots and infrastructure locations identified. Some sites are not included in the Google map because of privacy concerns for research located on farmer fields.
Articles with open access availability are in bold. These do not require a subscription to the journal to access. For individuals without accessibility to certain journals, contact firstname.lastname@example.org for requests to articles below that are subscription-only.
Askar, M.H., M.A. Youssef, P.A. Vadas, D.L. Hesterberg, A. Amoozegar, G.M. Chescheir, and R.W. Skaggs. 2021. DRAINMOD-P: A model for simulating phosphorus dynamics and transport in drained agricultural lands. I. Model development. Transactions of the ASABE. 64: 1835-1848. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.14509
Askar, M.H., M.A. Youssef, D.L. Hesterberg, K.W. King, A. Amoozegar, R.W. Skaggs, G.M. Chescheir, and E. Ghane. 2021. DRAINMOD-P: Predicting surface and subsurface phosphorus losses from a drained agricultural field with desiccation cracks in northwest Ohio. II. Model testing. Transactions of the ASABE. 64: 1849-1866. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.14510
Ghane, E., M.H. Askar, and R.W. Skaggs. 2021. Design drainage rates to optimize crop production for subsurface-drained fields. Agricultural Water Management. 257: 107045 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.107045
Gunn, K.M., W.J. Baule, J.R. Frankenberger, D.L. Gamble, B.J. Allred, J.A. Andresen and L.C. Brown. 2018. Modeled climate change impacts on subirrigated maize relative yield in northwest Ohio. Agricultural Water Management. 206: 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.04.034
Helmers, M.J., L. Abendroth, B. Reinhart, G. Chighladze, L. Pease, L. Bowling, M. Youssef, E. Ghane, L. Ahiablame, L. Brown, N. Fausey, J. Frankenberger, D. Jaynes, K. King, E. Kladivko, K. Nelson, J. Strock. 2022. Impact of controlled drainage on subsurface drain flow and nitrate load: A synthesis of studies across the U.S. Midwest and Southeast. Agricultural Water Management. 259: 107265 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.107265
Jaynes, D.B. and T.M. Isenhart. 2018. Performance of saturated riparian buffers in Iowa, USA. Journal of Environmental Quality. 48: 289-296. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2018.03.0115
Kolars, K., X. Jia, D.D. Steele, and T.F. Scherer. 2019. A soil water balance model for subsurface water management. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 35: 633-646. https://doi.org/10.13031/aea.13038
Moursi, H., M.A. Youssef, and G.M. Chescheir. . 2022. Development and application of DRAINMOD model for simulating crop yield and water conservation benefits of drainage water recycling. Agricultural Water Management. 266: 107592 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2022.107592
Nash, P.R., G. Singh, and K.A. Nelson. 2020. Nutrient Loss from Floodplain Soil with Controlled Tile Drainage Under Forage Production. Journal of Environmental Quality. 49: 1000-1010. https://doi.org/10.1002/jeq2.20072
Negm, L.M., M.A. Youssef, and D.B. Jaynes. 2017. Evaluation of DRAINMOD-DSSAT simulated effects of controlled drainage on crop yield, water balance, and water quality for a corn-soybean cropping system in central Iowa. Agricultural Water Management. 187: 57-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.03.010
Nelson, K.A. 2017. Soybean yield variability of drainage and subirrigation systems in a claypan soil. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 33: 801-809. https://doi.org/10.13031/aea.12276
Niaghi, A.R. and X. Jia. 2019. New approach to improve the soil water balance method for evapotranspiration estimation. Water. 11: 2478 https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122478
Niaghi, A. R., X. Jia, T. F. Scherer, and D.D. Steele. 2019. Measurement of non-irrigated turfgrass evapotranspiration rate in the Red River Valley. Vadose Zone Journal. 18: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2018.11.0202
Niaghi, A.R., X. Jia, D.D. Steele, and T.F. Scherer. 2019. Drainage water management effects on energy flux partitioning, evapotranspiration, and crop coefficients of corn. Agricultural Water Management. 225: 105760 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2019.105760
Reinhart, B.D., J.R. Frankenberger, C.H. Hay, and M.J. Helmers. 2019. Simulated water quality and irrigation benefits from drainage water recycling at two tile-drained sites in the US Midwest. Agricultural Water Management. 223: 105699 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2019.105699
Reinhart, B., J. Frankenberger, C. Hay, L. Bowling, and B. Hancock. 2020. Development and sensitivity analysis of an online tool for evaluating drainage water recycling decisions. Transactions of the ASABE. 63: 1991-2002. https://elibrary.asabe.org/azdez.asp?JID=3&AID=51810&CID=t2020&v=63&i=5&T=1&refer=7&access=
Roy, D., X. Jia, D. D. Steele, and D. Lin. 2018. Development and comparison of soil water release curves for three soils in the Red River Valley of the North, USA. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 82: 568-577. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2017.09.0324.
Roy, D., X. Jia, D.D. Steele, X. Chu, and Z. Lin. 2020. Infiltration into frozen silty clay loam soil with different soil water contents in the Red River of the North Basin in the U.S. Water. 12: 321 https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020321
Saadat, S., L. Bowling, J. Frankenberger, and K. Brooks. 2017. Effects of controlled drainage on water table recession rate. Transactions of the ASABE. 60: 813-821. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.11922
Saadat, S., L. Bowling, J. Frankenberger, and E. Kladivko. 2018. Nitrate and phosphorus transport through subsurface drains under free and controlled drainage. Water Research. 142: 196-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.040
Saadat, S., L. Bowling, J. Frankenberger, and E. Kladivko. 2018. Estimating drain flow from measured water table depth in layered soils under free and controlled drainage. Journal of Hydrology. 556: 339-348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.11.001
Singh, G. and K.A. Nelson. 2020. Long-term drainage, subirrigation, and tile spacing effects on maize production. Field Crops Research. 262: 108032 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2020.108032
Willison, R.S., K.A. Nelson, L.J. Abendroth, G. Chighladze, C.H. Hay, X. Jia, J. Kjaersgaard, B.D. Reinhart, J.S. Strock, and C.K. Wikle. 2020. Corn yield response to subsurface drainage water recycling in the Midwestern United States. Agronomy Journal. 113: 1865-1881 https://doi.org/10.1002/agj2.20579
Yu, F., J. Frankenberger, J. Ackerson, and B. Reinhart. 2020. Potential suitability of subirrigation for field crops in the U.S. Midwest. Transactions of the ASABE. 63: 1559-1570. https://elibrary.asabe.org/azdez.asp?JID=3&AID=51810&t=2&v=0&i=0&CID=t0000&downPDF=Y&directPDF=Y
Several graduate students were supported by and contributed to the scientific discoveries and publications of the Transforming Drainage team. Their theses and dissertations are provided here via links to their major University library.
Brooks, F. 2016. Development of an approximate DRAINMOD-based tool to estimate annual drainage flow and nitrate loading for drained cropland in Midwestern United States. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, NC. NCSU Repository. http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.20/33756
Kolars, K. 2016. Incorporation of subsurface drainage and subirrigation into the Checkbook Method. North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. NDSU Repository. https://hdl.handle.net/10365/27923
Locker, A. 2018. Controlled drainage: Assessment of yield impacts and education effectiveness. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. 10841298. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2103938365
Niaghi, A.R. 2019. Advanced evapotranspiration measurement for crop water management in the Red River Valley. North Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. Fargo, ND. https://library.ndsu.edu/ir/handle/10365/31644
Roy, D. 2018. Snowmelt water infiltration into frozen soil in Red River of the North Basin. North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. 10789714. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2043383985
Saadat, S. 2019. Evaluation of hydrological processes and environmental impacts of free and controlled subsurface drainage. Purdue University, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department. West Lafayette, IN.
Sahani, A. 2018. A demonstration study of drainage water management in Eastern South Dakota. South Dakota State University, Brookings, S.D. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 2148. https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/etd/2148
Smith, S.D. 2015. Evaluating management options: Simulating wetland process and performance of nutrient reduction by use of a water quality algorithm. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. 10062223. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1776702775?accountid=13360
Select the sites and practices of interest for visualization by referencing these maps. View the Google Map which has plots and infrastructure locations identified. Some sites are not included in the Google map because of privacy concerns for research located on farmer fields.
- Tile Flow (Still in Development)
- Nitrate Load
- Water Table Depth (Still in Development)
- Water Quality (coming soon)
- Soil Moisture and Temperature (Still in Development)
Project-wide tools are also available at Transforming Drainage Tools. You will find geospatial tools for identifying areas where these drainage practices may be successful as well as calculators to determine installation specifications and effectiveness of practices.
Research data were published at USDA National Agricultural Library Ag Data Commons in March 2021 at doi:10.15482/USDA.ADC/152109. Additional data or edits made to that dataset will be listed here in the future.
Supplementary weather data are available for Transforming Drainage research sites and are provided from nearby weather networks. These data are most appropriate to use with these research sites because of proximity. The data are collected from a variety of sources, including the National Climatic Data Center, National Weather Service, and State Climatologists with curation and management by Iowa Environmental Mesonet. These entities revise their data and will produce updated values that are reprocessed into this archive.
Documentation on this dataset can be found here
On-site weather stations existed at some research sites to provide finer resolution weather data as compared to the networked weather data which can be a mile or more away. This on-site weather data is especially valuable for precipitation amounts as that will vary more spatially than temperature or wind.
On-site weather stations tend to be less robust of instrumentation however than the weather data included under the first tab. It is recommended to use this on-site data as a secondary data set to refine the networked data. It is expected that the temperature and wind values will be near identical between the stations but the precipitation amounts will vary.